My best friends been getting terrible colesores, despite eating very well. So it got me thinking that there is no one answer, no single path. There are many ways in which we can heal, or become sick.
The following areas are just my own thoughts, not from any classical text. I have heard doctors try to measure their importance with a percentage or a weighting, but to my mind they are all important. Their strength depends on the patient and the illness and the circumstances.
Of course, everything you eat is of great importance in Ayurveda. The diet should suit your prakruti, virkruti and environmental factors such as the seasons and your lifestyle.
Routine is crucial for me, being Vata. I like to sleep, wake and eat at the same time everyday. Even if I am on holidays or unemployed I still wake up at 6am, eat at 8am, 12pm and 6pm, and sleep agan at 9 or 10pm. It's not a chore, I love it, I find I have a lot more energy, and I get a lot more done. Other lifestyle factors include stress, relationships, where you live and your job. All of these can balance or imbalance your dosha.
Ayurvedic Medicine is extremely powerful, I am constantly surprised by it. Don't self medicate, find a great doctor and visit them regularly, and tell them the truth about your diet, lifestyle etc.
Ayurveda offers wonderful treatments for all sort of conditions. For example massage (oil for Vata, dry for Kapha), Panch karma for serious detox, or Shirodhara for rejuvination.
The mind is the most powerful tool of all. If you believe in your cure it is more likely to come, like the placebo effect. Faith, prayer, meditation, visualisation are all very useful tools towards health.
The truth is is, the physical body is impermenant. For all our best efforts we will die, so to some degree health is random. Just do what you can, but if it doesn't work out, don't blame yourself or your doctor or God, just accept that we were born and we will die. Make the best of the bit in the middle.